Things About Examination of Infectious Diseases You Need to Know

Roseous.comInfectious diseases are conditions that arise due to the attack of microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. The right diagnosis can provide information about the type and causes of infection, so that the treatment can be effective.

Things About Examination of Infectious Diseases You Need to Know
Things About Examination of Infectious Diseases You Need to Know
Various microorganisms can live in the human body, and are generally harmless, or sometimes even beneficial. But under certain conditions, these microorganisms can interfere with the body's function by causing certain diseases.

Not only caused by microorganisms that persist in the human body, an infectious disease can also arise due to being transmitted by sufferers of the disease. This transmission can occur through direct contact or through intermediary media, such as contaminated food, air, water or blood. In addition, infectious diseases can also be transmitted from animals or insects.

Indications for examination of infectious diseases

Examination of infectious diseases will be carried out by doctors against patients who experience symptoms. The following are a number of symptoms that are generally a marker of infection:
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Muscle ache
  • Limp
  • Diarrhea

If you experience the symptoms above, it is recommended to see a doctor and undergo a recommended examination. What's more if:
  • You were previously bitten by an animal or insect
  • Accompanied by the appearance of a rash or swelling of the skin
  • Accompanied by sudden visual disturbances
  • The fever lasts a long time
  • Accompanied by shortness of breath
  • Accompanied by coughing that lasts more than 1 week
  • Accompanied by a great headache

Infectious Disease Inspection Warning

There is no obstacle for someone to undergo an infection infection. However, this procedure can involve taking a blood sample using a needle. Therefore, for patients who are taking blood thinning drugs, the doctor will be asked to stop taking the drug temporarily. In addition, for patients who suffer from blood clotting abnormalities, they must inform the doctor before undergoing an infection examination.

Examination of Infection Disease

The examination of infectious diseases begins with the doctor by studying the symptoms that exist in the patient. Pain can be an important clue about the source of infection in the patient's body. In addition, rashes, coughs, colds, nasal congestion, and diarrhea also help doctors diagnose.

In addition to studying symptoms, the doctor will also review the patient's medical history. Among them:
  • A disease that has been suffered by a patient.
  • The health condition of the patient's family at home and close friends.
  • The procedure that the patient has undergone, for example surgery or organ transplantation, because it can be a means of infection.
  • Immunization history and use of drugs that can affect the patient's immune system conditions, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

After that, if necessary, investigation will be carried out. This examination is carried out by taking samples to be tested in the laboratory. The sample used is generally taken from:
  • Blood
  • Urine
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Throat mucus
  • Sputum
  • Brain and spinal fluid (cerebrosipinal)
  • Body tissue sample

The following are some examples of investigations that doctors can recommend to determine the cause of infection:
  1. Gram bacterial smear. Inspection with this microscope is done to detect the presence of bacteria and determine the type of bacteria, Gram positive or negative, because it will determine the treatment.
  2. Microbial culture. Samples that have been taken from patients will be cultured in a laboratory using a special culture medium to identify microbes that cause infectious diseases more specifically. The microbial culture process can take several days to weeks, depending on the level of difficulty of the bacteria to grow in the laboratory. Some types of bacteria even some cannot be grown in the laboratory at all, like the bacteria that causes syphilis (Treponema pallidum), so it requires other diagnostic methods to identify the disease.
  3. Antibody test. An antibody test is performed to detect specific antibodies that react to microbes that cause infection. Antibody tests generally use blood samples, but can also use samples from other body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies play a role in detecting microbes that cause infection, because antibodies will only react specifically to one type of microbe only if there is an infection. Therefore, the presence of antibodies will be a sign that the patient has been infected with microbes and provides an immune response. However, the weakness of this test is that antibodies remain in the immune system even though the microbes that cause infection are not present in the body.
  4. Antigen test. Antigens are part of microbes that can trigger the immune system's response in the body, by reacting to antibodies. In other words, the presence of microbes can be detected by detecting the antigen. This test can be used to determine the cause of infection that cannot be done with microbial culture methods. For example syphilis bacteria or viruses. Antigens are generally obtained from blood samples which are then reacted with specific antibodies to identify the type of antigen that causes infection in the patient.
  5. Antimicrobial resistance test. Tests are carried out to find out which antimicrobial drugs are most effective in treating infections, and to find out whether the microbes that cause infection already have resistance or resistance to the drug to be used. Antimicrobial resistance tests are also carried out by doing microbial culture, then added the type of antimicrobial drug that will be used. The results of this test can be a consideration for doctors to determine which drugs will be given to patients.
  6. Microbial genetic test. This test is done by detecting the presence of specific DNA or RNA belonging to the microbes that cause infection. This test can provide more accurate and faster results compared to microbial culture, because it does not have to wait for microbes to grow first.

In addition to the above examination methods, patients can also undergo other supporting tests as a support to provide a more accurate diagnosis. Examples are X-rays, MRIs, CT scans, and biopsies.

After Examination of Infection

The results of examination of the infectious disease will come out within a few days or weeks, and the doctor will be given to the patient during the consultation. The doctor will explain the type of infectious disease that is being suffered by the patient, and the medication that must be used. Example:
  • Antibiotics. Antibiotics will be given by doctors to patients if the patient has a bacterial infection. The doctor will give the patient detailed instructions for using antibiotics.
  • Antiviral. A doctor will give an antiviral to the patient if he has a viral infection, for example Herpes, HIV / AIDS, or hepatitis.
  • Antifungal. Antifungals will be given by a doctor if the patient has a fungal infection, both in the external organs and in the internal organs. For more serious fungal infections, it should usually be treated with antifungals in the form of injections.
  • Antiparasitic. Antiparasites will be given by doctors to patients if they suffer from parasitic infections, for example malaria.

In addition to these drugs, patients can do a number of things to help relieve symptoms of infectious diseases. If you have a fever or chills, patients should increase the amount of water they drink in a day and rest more. Patients are also encouraged to eat foods and fruits that contain lots of vitamins to help the healing process. The doctor will tell you what foods should be increased in number, and which should be avoided so that the condition does not get worse.

Risk of Infectious Disease Examination

Examination of infectious diseases is a procedure that is very safe to live, and rarely causes complications. For examination procedures that involve blood sampling, the risks that can occur are:
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Rash
  • Pain
  • Bruised
  • Fainted
Things About Examination of Infectious Diseases You Need to Know Things About Examination of Infectious Diseases You Need to Know Reviewed by ROSEOUS COM on September 12, 2018 Rating: 5
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